Tribal Gods: Many ancient writers appear to refer to a deity named variously Toutatis, Teutates, Teutenus, Toutiorîxs, and so on. The deity, often called a war-God, is variously identified with Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, and Apollo. In fact, the term, Toutatîs in the plural, refers to the Gods of tribes and localities. Tribal cults were ubiquitous in ancient Gaul. Every tribe and locality had one, though not all are known today. The list that follows, taken from Miranda Green’s Dictionary of Celtic Myth and Legend is, again, meant to be a sample, and not comprehensive.

A. Lenus: The great healer God of the Treveri, worshipped near Trier in modern Germany. Pilgrims came from very far to worship at his sanctuary and be healed of their illnesses, but he was always first and foremost a Treverian deity.1

B. Cocidius: A local British war and hunting God, worshipped near Hadrian’s Wall.2

C. Luxovius: The local deity of Luxeuil, Haute-Saóne, France.3

D. Albiorix: Tribal God of the Albici, in Vaucluse, southern France.4

E. Vasio: Local God of Vaison-la-Romaine, a town in the lower Rhône valley, in modern France.5

F. Vosegus: Local God of the Vosges mountains, in eastern Gaul.6

G. Loucetius: Tribal God of the Vangiones. His name refers to “lightning”, so Loucetius may be another name for Taranis.7

  1.  Green, Dictionary, pp. 142-143
  2.  Green, Dictionary, 62
  3. Green, Dictionary, p. 136
  4.  Green, Dictionary, p. 140
  5. Green, Dictionary, p. 218
  6. Green, Dictionary, p. 220-221
  7. Green, Dictionary, p. 143

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  1. I would offer Belenos/Belenus as another example, linked to his sanctuary in Aquileia. Often identified to the oracle and healing powers of Apollo, during the siege of Maximinus in Ad 238, the god was seen hovering in the air defending his town.

    Similar to the use of terms such as President, Teutates was most likely an epithet.